In order to spend time and function outdoors in a winter climate, it is necessary to understand the human body’s ability to regulate its own temperature. Because our bodies are naturally suited for a more tropical climate, we need clothing and equipment to keep us dry, warm and safe.
The clothes you choose and how you combine them are both very important. The garments should be designed to allow good mobility and ventilation. The air inside the garment is a key ingredient in the insulation since air conducts the cold poorly. Clothing, gloves and shoes that fit too tightly allow less space for air, and therefore are not good insulators. (On the other hand, if you are wearing very loose clothing it is difficult for your body to warm up the air inside.)